DNA fingerprinting, also called DNA profiling, is a scientific technique that collects a specific DNA pattern, or profile, from an individual organism. Often the DNA profile is then compared to other profiles to find a match. DNA fingerprinting is most commonly used in paternity and forensics to identify individuals based on their DNA, though it is used for other purposes as well.
Invented in 1984 by Sir Alec Jeffreys after he discovered differences in DNA, DNA fingerprinting is now a common procedure. Human DNA is actually quite identical to one another, with the exception of regions called polymorphisms, which are inherited from our parents. Analyzing these regions results in a unique DNA fingerprint.
A DNA fingerprint is created by:
- Obtain a sample of DNA
Most cells of the body contain DNA like hair root, semen, bodily tissue, saliva, and white blood cells.
- Extract the DNA
Chemicals are added to break open cells as DNA is found in the nucleus. Other components added isolate the DNA from other pieces of the cell.
- Copy the DNA
Since the DNA in the nucleus is such as small amount it is copied to ensure their is enough to make a profile.
- Determine size of short tandem repeat (STR)
STR are parts of the DNA which are non-coding and contain repeats of a specific nucleotide sequence. The size of the STR is determined using a genetic analyser which is able to separate copied DNA.
- Check for a match
After the size of the STR is determined, the number of times the nucleotide sequence is repeated can be determined. Forensic scientists then uses the information to determine who the DNA sample came from.
- LONG-TERM TESTING FDA GMP Genetics Laboratory needed for Quality Control QC DNA fingerprinting analysis (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) of a yeast used in pharmaceutical product
- Biological biocide manufacturer needs microbioogy and genetics laboratory for biocide testing. In the production range we have three biological insectidies and one biological fungicide a basis of the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis ( www.bioec.rs). We need some laboratory analysis, so if your laboratory can do any of the following analysis please send us offer. Necessary analysis Identification of microorganisms of Bacillus thuringiensis: 1. Phenotypic methods – physiological methods – metabolic methods 2. Chemotaxonomic methods – typing – serotyping on H14 antigen – profile of all cellular proteins : PAGE, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis 3. Genotypic methods – typing on DNA-based ( DNA fingerprinting), for example: AFLP-PCR – typing ribosomal RNA SDS-PAGE (gel electrophoresis) analysis of the molecular weight profile of proteins that make delta endotoxin or analysis of plasmid DNA encoding the endotoxin electrophoresis on agarose gel. Identity of impurities, additivies and contaminants microorganismis Contaminating microorganisms 1. Salmonella spp 2. Listeria monocytoides 3. Echerichia coli or thermotolerant (fecal) coliform 4. Staphylococcus aureus 5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6. Clostridium perfrigens or sulphate-reducing clostridia 7. Total number of yeasts and molds
- Canada Genetics Laboratory needed for DNA fingerprinting, karyotyping, and relationships of DNA, RNA, Adenosine Triphosphate, mitochondria, and creatinine to hereditary dominant, dominant recessive, and recessive degenerative disorders of the nervous system including muscular dystrophy, Parkinson’s Disease, Cystic Fibrosis, and Huntington’s Disease.
- DNA Fingerprinting by AFLP true to type match for tissue culture plants by AFLP technique. We have few Date palm samples to be analysed.
- Organization needs genetics laboratory for DNA Fingerprinting (PCR-Amplification)of certain species of endangered wild animal hair samples to determine the number of individuals in the study area
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