What are the different types of Chromatography?


From paper chromatography, to column chromatography to gas chromatography, there are different types of Chromatography.  Chromatography is a way to separate mixtures into their parts. It is performed by passing a mixture through another substance, where the chemicals of the mixtures move at different speeds. Some common types of chromatography include paper, column, and gas.

Paper chromatography uses the different rates of migration to separate chemicals across sheets of paper. This method of chromatography is done by applying a solution near the edge of a sheet of paper and then submerging the edge, but not the solution, in a solvent. As the solvent penetrates the paper and as it spreads over the original spot, it carries the different components which travel at different speeds, thus separating the chemicals. Paper chromatography is often used for the separation of amino acids, carbohydrates, steroids, and more.

Another common form of chromatography often used for the separation of solid and liquids, is column chromatography and usually involve substances such as silica, alumina, magnesia, starch, etc. Column chromatography is performed by dissolving the mixture to be separated in a solvent and then poured into a cylindrical tube that is plugged at the bottom by glass wool or a porous disc. As the mixture is poured through the column, the different substances in the mixture are absorbed at different points. The substance with greater adsorption power will be adsorbed near the top of the column and the other adsorbed near the bottom.

Gas chromatography is used to separate chemical compounds. It is accomplished by using a gas chromatograph machine. A small sample of the substance to be measured is first placed into a syringe and injected to the machine. The mixture is then heated until it vaporizes. A carrier gas is then added to help move the sample through a glass or metal column. The column is filled with a liquid with a high boiling point so that as the mixture moves through the column, it gets absorbed and separates into the different elements. The elements escape from the end of the column at different speeds and as they do so they pass an electronic detector that identifies them and prints them on a chart. The chart contains peaks that correspond to the elements in the substance.

Contract Laboratory has received many requests for companies, organizations and governments needing independent,  third-party contract laboratories to perform different types of chromatography analysis. Some examples of projects include:

    • Laboratory needed for ASTM Testing of upgraded athabasca bitumen to astm d 2887, Standard Test Method for Boiling Range Distribution of Petroleum Fractions by Gas Chromatography4530, 5291, 2007 and 4052
    • Bahrain analytical chemistry laboratory needed for benzoic acid analysis in fizzy drinks using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or HPLC
    • Large Petroleum Company needs Oil Laboratory for Impurity Testing by Gas Chromatography – Mass SpectrophotometryGC-MS for 1 sulfur impurity in iso-octane
    • Cosmetics Laboratory needed for gas chromatography / mass spectrometry testing GC / MS of perfume.
    • Analytical chemistry laboratory needed to measure impurities such a CO2 and CO in hydrogen plant output gas using gas chromatography
    • Materials laboratory needed for ASTM D7419-13 testing Standard Test Method for Determination of Total Aromatics and Total Saturates in Lube Basestocks by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Refractive Index Detection
    • Pharmaceutical analytical chemistry laboratory needed for USP Testing: 1.0 Purity of Nitrogen gas and limit of oxygen by Gas Chromatography GC as per USP.
    • and many more!

If your company, organization or government  is in need of independent,  third-party contract laboratories  to perform chromatography analysis or testing, call us at 1-855-377-6821 or submit a chromatography test request online.

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