PK and PD Studies

PK and PD studies are techniques used in the study of pharmacology. Pharmacokinetic, commonly referred to as PK, is the study of what the body does and how it reacts […]

Urine Drug Toxicology Testing

Most drug toxicology testing is performed on urine samples, as most drugs are broken down and excreted through urine. Testing can also be done on blood, however concentrations of drugs […]

In Vivo and In Vitro Testing

In vivo and in vitro testing are two of the most common methods for studying and testing organisms. While similar, each type of testing has its advantages and disadvantages. In […]

Immunogenicity of Biologics

The US Food and Drug Administration defines biologics as “a wide range of products such as vaccines, blood and blood components, allergenics, somatic cells, gene therapy, tissues, and recombinant therapeutic […]

qPCR Testing

qPCR, also known as quantitative polymerase chain reaction, is a technique used to detect a specific DNA sequence or sequences. This type of testing is common in both research and […]

Potency Testing of Biopharmaceuticals

Potency testing is a term used to describe the process of measuring biological activity in a product. Many methods exist to determine the potency of a biopharmaceutical such as ligand […]

Food Allergy Testing

According to the FDA, food allergies are becoming a more common occurrence with symptoms ranging from mild hives to severe anaphylaxis. Symptoms of a food allergy can show up within […]


Biomechanics is a large branch of science covering a wide spectrum of testing from how cells work, to how the human body moves, with a focus on learning more about […]

Biocompatibility Testing

Biocompatibility testing is commonly done for medical devices with testing ranging from screening of new materials to safety evaluations. The term “biocompatibility” refers to the compatibility of materials with living tissue. […]